HIV-1 gp120 influences the expression of microRNAs in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells via STAT3 activation

HIV-1 gp120对人单核细胞源树突状细胞通过激活STAT3的microRNA的表达

Background: MicroRNAs (miRs) are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs (~22 nt) that reprogram gene expression by targeting mRNA degradation and translational disruption. An emerging concept implicates miR coupling with transcription factors in myeloid cell development and function, thus contributing to host defense and inflammation. The important role that these molecules play in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 is only now emerging. Results: We provide evidence that exposure of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) to recombinant HIV-1 R5 gp120, but not to CCR5 natural ligand CCL4, influences the expression of a panel of miRs (i.e., miR-21, miR-155 and miR-181b) regulated by STAT3 and potentially targeting genes belonging to the STAT3 signaling pathway. The blockage of gp120-induced STAT3 activation impairs gp120 capacity to modulate the expression level of above mentioned miRs. Predictive analysis of miR putative targets emphasizes that these miRs share common target genes. Furthermore, gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis outline that these genes mainly belong to biological processes related to regulation of transcription, in a complex network of interactions involving pathways relevant to HIV-DC interaction. Conclusions: Overall, these results point to gp120-triggered modulation of miR expression via STAT3 activation as a novel molecular mechanism exploited by HIV-1 to affect DC biology and thus modulate the immune response through complex regulatory loops involving, at the same time, miRs and transcription factors.

[详细]

  • BMC Genomics 2015, null:480
  • 4年前

Global analyses of TetR family transcriptional regulators in mycobacteria indicates conservation across species and diversity in regulated functions

在分枝杆菌TetR家族转录调节全球分析表明跨物种的保护和多样性的调节作用

Background: Mycobacteria inhabit diverse niches and display high metabolic versatility. They can colonise both humans and animals and are also able to survive in the environment. In order to succeed, response to environmental cues via transcriptional regulation is required. In this study we focused on the TetR family of transcriptional regulators (TFTRs) in mycobacteria. Results: We used InterPro to classify the entire complement of transcriptional regulators in 10 mycobacterial species and these analyses showed that TFTRs are the most abundant family of regulators in all species. We identified those TFTRs that are conserved across all species analysed and those that are unique to the pathogens included in the analysis. We examined genomic contexts of 663 of the conserved TFTRs and observed that the majority of TFTRs are separated by 200 bp or less from divergently oriented genes. Analyses of divergent genes indicated that the TFTRs control diverse biochemical functions not limited to efflux pumps. TFTRs typically bind to palindromic motifs and we identified 11 highly significant novel motifs in the upstream regions of divergently oriented TFTRs. The C-terminal ligand binding domain from the TFTR complement in M. tuberculosis showed great diversity in amino acid sequence but with an overall architecture common to other TFTRs. Conclusion: This study suggests that mycobacteria depend on TFTRs for the transcriptional control of a number of metabolic functions yet the physiological role of the majority of these regulators remain unknown.

[详细]

  • BMC Genomics 2015, null:479
  • 4年前

Core oxidative stress response in Aspergillus nidulans

核心的氧化应激反应在<它>构巢曲霉<它>

Background: The b-Zip transcription factor AtfA plays a key role in regulating stress responses in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. To identify the core regulons of AtfA, we examined genome-wide expression changes caused by various stresses in the presence/absence of AtfA using A. nidulans microarrays. We also intended to address the intriguing question regarding the existence of core environmental stress response in this important model eukaryote. Results: Examination of the genome wide expression changes caused by five different oxidative stress conditions in wild type and the atfA null mutant has identified a significant number of stereotypically regulated genes (Core Oxidative Stress Response genes). The deletion of atfA increased the oxidative stress sensitivity of A. nidulans and affected mRNA accumulation of several genes under both unstressed and stressed conditions. The numbers of genes under the AtfA control appear to be specific to a stress-type. We also found that both oxidative and salt stresses induced expression of some secondary metabolite gene clusters and the deletion of atfA enhanced the stress responsiveness of additional clusters. Moreover, certain clusters were down-regulated by the stresses tested. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the observed co-regulations were most likely consequences of the overlapping physiological effects of the stressors and not of the existence of a general environmental stress response. The function of AtfA in governing various stress responses is much smaller than anticipated and/or other regulators may play a redundant or overlapping role with AtfA. Both stress inducible and stress repressive regulations of secondary metabolism seem to be frequent features in A. nidulans.

[详细]

  • BMC Genomics 2015, null:478
  • 4年前

Metabolomic and transcriptomic insights into how cotton fiber transitions to secondary wall synthesis, represses lignification, and prolongs elongation

代谢组学、转录组学的见解如何过渡到棉纤维次生壁合成,抑制木质化,延长伸长

Background: The morphogenesis of single-celled cotton fiber includes extreme elongation and staged cell wall differentiation. Designing strategies for improving cotton fiber for textiles and other uses relies on uncovering the related regulatory mechanisms. In this research we compared the transcriptomes and metabolomes of two Gossypium genotypes, Gossypium barbadense cv Phytogen 800 and G. hirsutum cv Deltapine 90. When grown in parallel, the two types of fiber developed similarly except for prolonged fiber elongation in the G. barbadense cultivar. The data were collected from isolated fibers between 10 to 28 days post anthesis (DPA) representing: primary wall synthesis to support elongation; transitional cell wall remodeling; and secondary wall cellulose synthesis, which was accompanied by continuing elongation only in G. barbadense fiber. Results: Of 206 identified fiber metabolites, 205 were held in common between the two genotypes. Approximately 38,000 transcripts were expressed in the fiber of each genotype, and these were mapped to the reference set and interpreted by homology to known genes. The developmental changes in the transcriptomes and the metabolomes were compared within and across genotypes with several novel implications. Transitional cell wall remodeling is a distinct stable developmental stage lasting at least four days (18 to 21 DPA). Expression of selected cell wall related transcripts was similar between genotypes, but cellulose synthase gene expression patterns were more complex than expected. Lignification was transcriptionally repressed in both genotypes. Oxidative stress was lower in the fiber of G. barbadense cv Phytogen 800 as compared to G. hirsutum cv Deltapine 90. Correspondingly, the G. barbadense cultivar had enhanced capacity for management of reactive oxygen species during its prolonged elongation period, as indicated by a 138-fold increase in ascorbate concentration at 28 DPA. Conclusions: The parallel data on deep-sequencing transcriptomics and non-targeted metabolomics for two genotypes of single-celled cotton fiber showed that a discrete developmental stage of transitional cell wall remodeling occurs before secondary wall cellulose synthesis begins. The data showed how lignification can be transcriptionally repressed during secondary cell wall synthesis, and they implicated enhanced capacity to manage reactive oxygen species through the ascorbate-glutathione cycle as a positive contributor to fiber length.

[详细]

  • BMC Genomics 2015, null:477
  • 4年前

Structures of the T. brucei kRNA editing factor MRB1590 reveal unique RNA-binding pore motif contained within an ABC-ATPase fold

对布氏KRNA编辑因子mrb1590结构揭示了独特的RNA结合孔的主题包含在ABC酶倍

Kinetoplastid RNA (kRNA) editing is a process that creates translatable mitochondrial mRNA transcripts from cryptogene encoded RNAs and is unique for kinetoplastids, such as Trypanosoma brucei. In addition to the catalytic 20S editosome, multiple accessory proteins are required for this conversion. Recently, the multiprotein mitochondrial RNA binding complex 1 (MRB1) has emerged as a key player in this process. MRB1 consists of six core proteins but makes dynamic interactions with additional accessory proteins. Here we describe the characterization of one such factor, the 72 kDa MRB1590 protein. In vivo experiments indicate a role for MRB1590 in editing mitochondrial mRNA transcripts, in particular the transcript encoding the ATP synthase subunit 6 (A6). Structural studies show that MRB1590 is dimeric and contains a central ABC-ATPase fold embedded between novel N- and C-terminal regions. The N-terminal domains combine to create a basic pore and biochemical studies indicate residues in this region participate in RNA binding. Structures capturing distinct MRB1590 conformations reveal that the RNA binding pore adopts closed and open states, with the latter able to accommodate RNA. Based on these findings, implications for MRB1590 function are discussed.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Structural Biology

Redefining the transcriptional regulatory dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages by deepCAGE transcriptomics

重新定义的转录调控动力学的经典和替代性活化的巨噬细胞通过deepcage转录

Classically or alternatively activated macrophages (M1 and M2, respectively) play distinct and important roles for microbiocidal activity, regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. Despite this, their transcriptional regulatory dynamics are poorly understood. Using promoter-level expression profiling by non-biased deepCAGE we have studied the transcriptional dynamics of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Transcription factor (TF) binding motif activity analysis revealed four motifs, NFKB1_REL_RELA, IRF1,2, IRF7 and TBP that are commonly activated but have distinct activity dynamics in M1 and M2 activation. We observe matching changes in the expression profiles of the corresponding TFs and show that only a restricted set of TFs change expression. There is an overall drastic and transient up-regulation in M1 and a weaker and more sustainable up-regulation in M2. Novel TFs, such as Thap6, Maff, (M1) and Hivep1, Nfil3, Prdm1, (M2) among others, were suggested to be involved in the activation processes. Additionally, 52 (M1) and 67 (M2) novel differentially expressed genes and, for the first time, several differentially expressed long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcriptome markers were identified. In conclusion, the finding of novel motifs, TFs and protein-coding and lncRNA genes is an important step forward to fully understand the transcriptional machinery of macrophage activation.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Genomics

Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of adipocyte differentiation by Jumonji domain-containing protein 6

转录后的十文字域含蛋白质6脂肪细胞分化的转录调控

Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is a nuclear protein involved in histone modification, transcription and RNA processing. Although JMJD6 is crucial for tissue development, the link between its molecular functions and its roles in any given differentiation process is unknown. We report that JMJD6 is required for adipogenic gene expression and differentiation in a manner independent of Jumonji C domain catalytic activity. JMJD6 knockdown led to a reduction of C/EBPβ and C/EBP protein expression without affecting mRNA levels in the early phase of differentiation. However, ectopic expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBP did not rescue differentiation. Further analysis demonstrated that JMJD6 was associated with the Ppar2 and Cebpα loci and putative enhancers. JMJD6 was previously found associated with bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins, which can be targeted by the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. JQ1 treatment prevented chromatin binding of JMJD6, Ppar2 and Cebpα expression, and adipogenic differentiation, yet had no effect on C/EBPβ and C/EBP expression or chromatin binding. These results indicate dual roles for JMJD6 in promoting adipogenic gene expression program by post-transcriptional regulation of C/EBPβ and C/EBP and direct transcriptional activation of Ppar2 and Cebpα during adipocyte differentiation.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Gene regulation, Chromatin and Epigenetics

Integrative genomic analysis in K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells reveals that proximal NCOR1 binding positively regulates genes that govern erythroid differentiation and Imatinib sensitivity

慢性髓系白血病细胞K562的综合基因组分析揭示了近Ncor1结合正调控基因决定红细胞分化和伊马替尼敏感

To define the functions of NCOR1 we developed an integrative analysis that combined ENCODE and NCI-60 data, followed by in vitro validation. NCOR1 and H3K9me3 ChIP-Seq, FAIRE-seq and DNA CpG methylation interactions were related to gene expression using bootstrapping approaches. Most NCOR1 combinations (24/44) were associated with significantly elevated level expression of protein coding genes and only very few combinations related to gene repression. DAVID's biological process annotation revealed that elevated gene expression was uniquely associated with acetylation and ETS binding. A matrix of gene and drug interactions built on NCI-60 data identified that Imatinib significantly targeted the NCOR1 governed transcriptome. Stable knockdown of NCOR1 in K562 cells slowed growth and significantly repressed genes associated with NCOR1 cistrome, again, with the GO terms acetylation and ETS binding, and significantly dampened sensitivity to Imatinib-induced erythroid differentiation. Mining public microarray data revealed that NCOR1-targeted genes were significantly enriched in Imatinib response gene signatures in cell lines and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. These approaches integrated cistrome, transcriptome and drug sensitivity relationships to reveal that NCOR1 function is surprisingly most associated with elevated gene expression, and that these targets, both in CML cell lines and patients, associate with sensitivity to Imatinib.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Gene regulation, Chromatin and Epigenetics

Chemical intervention of the NM23-H2 transcriptional programme on c-MYC via a novel small molecule

化学干预的相关性计划通过一个新的转录基因的小分子

c-MYC is an important oncogene that is considered as an effective target for anticancer therapy. Regulation of this gene's transcription is one avenue for c-MYC-targeting drug design. Direct binding to a transcription factor and generating the intervention of a transcriptional programme appears to be an effective way to modulate gene transcription. NM23-H2 is a transcription factor for c-MYC and is proven to be related to the secondary structures in the promoter. Here, we first screened our small-molecule library for NM23-H2 binders and then sifted through the inhibitors that could target and interfere with the interaction process between NM23-H2 and the guanine-rich promoter sequence of c-MYC. As a result, a quinazolone derivative, SYSU-ID-01, showed a significant interference effect towards NM23-H2 binding to the guanine-rich promoter DNA sequence. Further analyses of the compound–protein interaction and the protein–DNA interaction provided insight into the mode of action for SYSU-ID-01. Cellular evaluation results showed that SYSU-ID-01 could abrogate NM23-H2 binding to the c-MYC promoter, resulting in downregulation of c-MYC transcription and dramatically suppressed HeLa cell growth. These findings provide a new way of c-MYC transcriptional control through interfering with NM23-H2 binding to guanine-rich promoter sequences by small molecules.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Chemical Biology and Nucleic Acid Chemistry

The structure of Rpf2-Rrs1 explains its role in ribosome biogenesis

对rpf2-rrs1结构解释其核糖体的生物合成的作用

The assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is a hierarchical process involving about 200 biogenesis factors and a series of remodeling steps. The 5S RNP consisting of the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and RpL11 is recruited at an early stage, but has to rearrange during maturation of the pre-60S ribosomal subunit. Rpf2 and Rrs1 have been implicated in 5S RNP biogenesis, but their precise role was unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Rpf2–Rrs1 complex from Aspergillus nidulans at 1.5 Å resolution and describe it as Brix domain of Rpf2 completed by Rrs1 to form two anticodon-binding domains with functionally important tails. Fitting the X-ray structure into the cryo-EM density of a previously described pre-60S particle correlates with biochemical data. The heterodimer forms specific contacts with the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and the biogenesis factor Rsa4. The flexible protein tails of Rpf2–Rrs1 localize to the central protuberance. Two helices in the Rrs1 C-terminal tail occupy a strategic position to block the rotation of 25S rRNA and the 5S RNP. Our data provide a structural model for 5S RNP recruitment to the pre-60S particle and explain why removal of Rpf2–Rrs1 is necessary for rearrangements to drive 60S maturation.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Structural Biology

Active promoters give rise to false positive 'Phantom Peaks' in ChIP-seq experiments

活动发起人产生假阳性的幻峰的ChIP-seq实验

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is widely used to identify chromosomal binding sites. Chromatin proteins are cross-linked to their target sequences in living cells. The purified chromatin is sheared and the relevant protein is enriched by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. The co-purifying genomic DNA is then determined by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq).

We applied ChIP-seq to map the chromosomal binding sites for two ISWI-containing nucleosome remodeling factors, ACF and RSF, in Drosophila embryos. Employing several polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies directed against their signature subunits, ACF1 and RSF-1, robust profiles were obtained indicating that both remodelers co-occupied a large set of active promoters.

Further validation included controls using chromatin of mutant embryos that do not express ACF1 or RSF-1. Surprisingly, the ChIP-seq profiles were unchanged, suggesting that they were not due to specific immunoprecipitation. Conservative analysis lists about 3000 chromosomal loci, mostly active promoters that are prone to non-specific enrichment in ChIP and appear as ‘Phantom Peaks’. These peaks are not obtained with pre-immune serum and are not prominent in input chromatin.

Mining the modENCODE ChIP-seq profiles identifies potential Phantom Peaks in many profiles of epigenetic regulators. These profiles and other ChIP-seq data featuring prominent Phantom Peaks must be validated with chromatin from cells in which the protein of interest has been depleted.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Genomics

A predictive biophysical model of translational coupling to coordinate and control protein expression in bacterial operons

预测平移耦合协调和控制细菌操纵子表达蛋白的生物物理模型

Natural and engineered genetic systems require the coordinated expression of proteins. In bacteria, translational coupling provides a genetically encoded mechanism to control expression level ratios within multi-cistronic operons. We have developed a sequence-to-function biophysical model of translational coupling to predict expression level ratios in natural operons and to design synthetic operons with desired expression level ratios. To quantitatively measure ribosome re-initiation rates, we designed and characterized 22 bi-cistronic operon variants with systematically modified intergenic distances and upstream translation rates. We then derived a thermodynamic free energy model to calculate de novo initiation rates as a result of ribosome-assisted unfolding of intergenic RNA structures. The complete biophysical model has only five free parameters, but was able to accurately predict downstream translation rates for 120 synthetic bi-cistronic and tri-cistronic operons with rationally designed intergenic regions and systematically increased upstream translation rates. The biophysical model also accurately predicted the translation rates of the nine protein atp operon, compared to ribosome profiling measurements. Altogether, the biophysical model quantitatively predicts how translational coupling controls protein expression levels in synthetic and natural bacterial operons, providing a deeper understanding of an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism and offering the ability to rationally engineer operons with desired behaviors.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Synthetic Biology and Bioengineering

The ancestor of modern Holozoa acquired the CCA-adding enzyme from Alphaproteobacteria by horizontal gene transfer

现代holozoa祖先获得的CCA添加通过水平基因转移中的酶

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) require the absolutely conserved sequence motif CCA at their 3'-ends, representing the site of aminoacylation. In the majority of organisms, this trinucleotide sequence is not encoded in the genome and thus has to be added post-transcriptionally by the CCA-adding enzyme, a specialized nucleotidyltransferase. In eukaryotic genomes this ubiquitous and highly conserved enzyme family is usually represented by a single gene copy. Analysis of published sequence data allows us to pin down the unusual evolution of eukaryotic CCA-adding enzymes. We show that the CCA-adding enzymes of animals originated from a horizontal gene transfer event in the stem lineage of Holozoa, i.e. Metazoa (animals) and their unicellular relatives, the Choanozoa. The tRNA nucleotidyltransferase, acquired from an α-proteobacterium, replaced the ancestral enzyme in Metazoa. However, in Choanoflagellata, the group of Choanozoa that is closest to Metazoa, both the ancestral and the horizontally transferred CCA-adding enzymes have survived. Furthermore, our data refute a mitochondrial origin of the animal tRNA nucleotidyltransferases.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Computational Biology

Complementing tissue characterization by integrating transcriptome profiling from the Human Protein Atlas and from the FANTOM5 consortium

补充组织特性结合转录组分析从人类蛋白阿特拉斯从fantom5财团

Understanding the normal state of human tissue transcriptome profiles is essential for recognizing tissue disease states and identifying disease markers. Recently, the Human Protein Atlas and the FANTOM5 consortium have each published extensive transcriptome data for human samples using Illumina-sequenced RNA-Seq and Heliscope-sequenced CAGE. Here, we report on the first large-scale complex tissue transcriptome comparison between full-length versus 5'-capped mRNA sequencing data. Overall gene expression correlation was high between the 22 corresponding tissues analyzed (R > 0.8). For genes ubiquitously expressed across all tissues, the two data sets showed high genome-wide correlation (91% agreement), with differences observed for a small number of individual genes indicating the need to update their gene models. Among the identified single-tissue enriched genes, up to 75% showed consensus of 7-fold enrichment in the same tissue in both methods, while another 17% exhibited multiple tissue enrichment and/or high expression variety in the other data set, likely dependent on the cell type proportions included in each tissue sample. Our results show that RNA-Seq and CAGE tissue transcriptome data sets are highly complementary for improving gene model annotations and highlight biological complexities within tissue transcriptomes. Furthermore, integration with image-based protein expression data is highly advantageous for understanding expression specificities for many genes.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Data Resources and Analyses

An atlas of RNA base pairs involving modified nucleobases with optimal geometries and accurate energies

阿特拉斯的RNA碱基的修饰碱基最优构型和准确的能量

Posttranscriptional modifications greatly enhance the chemical information of RNA molecules, contributing to explain the diversity of their structures and functions. A significant fraction of RNA experimental structures available to date present modified nucleobases, with half of them being involved in H-bonding interactions with other bases, i.e. ‘modified base pairs’. Herein we present a systematic investigation of modified base pairs, in the context of experimental RNA structures. To this end, we first compiled an atlas of experimentally observed modified base pairs, for which we recorded occurrences and structural context. Then, for each base pair, we selected a representative for subsequent quantum mechanics calculations, to find out its optimal geometry and interaction energy. Our structural analyses show that most of the modified base pairs are non Watson–Crick like and are involved in RNA tertiary structure motifs. In addition, quantum mechanics calculations quantify and provide a rationale for the impact of the different modifications on the geometry and stability of the base pairs they participate in.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Computational Biology

BreakSeek: a breakpoint-based algorithm for full spectral range INDEL detection

breakseek:基于断点全光谱范围的InDel检测算法

Although recent developed algorithms have integrated multiple signals to improve sensitivity for insertion and deletion (INDEL) detection, they are far from being perfect and still have great limitations in detecting a full size range of INDELs. Here we present BreakSeek, a novel breakpoint-based algorithm, which can unbiasedly and efficiently detect both homozygous and heterozygous INDELs, ranging from several base pairs to over thousands of base pairs, with accurate breakpoint and heterozygosity rate estimations. Comprehensive evaluations on both simulated and real datasets revealed that BreakSeek outperformed other existing methods on both sensitivity and specificity in detecting both small and large INDELs, and uncovered a significant amount of novel INDELs that were missed before. In addition, by incorporating sophisticated statistic models, we for the first time investigated and demonstrated the importance of handling false and conflicting signals for multi-signal integrated methods.

[详细]

  • Nucleic Acids Research
  • 4年前
  • Computational Biology

Proteny: Discovering and visualizing statistically significant syntenic clusters at the proteome level

普田:发现和可视化统计上显著的线性集群在蛋白质组水平

Background: With more and more genomes being sequenced, detecting synteny between genomes becomes more and more important. However, for microorganisms the genomic divergence quickly becomes large, resulting in different codon usage and shuffling of gene order and gene elements such as exons.

Approach: We present Proteny, a methodology to detect synteny between diverged genomes. It operates on the amino acid sequence level to be insensitive to codon usage adaptations, and clusters groups of exons disregarding order to handle diversity in genomic ordering between genomes. Furthermore, Proteny assigns significance levels to the syntenic clusters such that they can be selected on statistical grounds. Finally, Proteny provides novel ways to visualize results at different scales, facilitating the exploration and interpretation of syntenic regions.

Results: We test the performance of Proteny on a standard ground truth dataset, and we illustrate the use of Proteny on two closely related genomes (two different strains of Aspergillus niger) and on two distant genomes (two species of Basidiomycota). In comparison to other tools, we find that Proteny finds clusters with more true homologies in fewer clusters that contain more genes, i.e. Proteny is able to identify a more consistent synteny. Further, we show how genome rearrangements, assembly errors, gene duplications and the conservation of specific genes can be easily studied with Proteny.

Availability: Proteny is freely available at the Delft Bioinformatics Lab website http://bioinformatics.tudelft.nl/dbl/software.

[详细]

  • Bioinformatics
  • 4年前
  • ORIGINAL PAPER

ISQuest: Finding Insertion Sequences in Prokaryotic Sequence Fragment Data

isquest:原核序列片段的插入序列数据发现

Motivation: Insertion sequences (ISs) are transposable elements present in most bacterial and archaeal genomes that play an important role in genomic evolution. The increasing availability of sequenced prokaryotic genomes offers the opportunity to study ISs comprehensively, but development of efficient and accurate tools is required for discovery and annotation. Additionally, prokaryotic genomes are frequently deposited as incomplete, or draft stage because of the substantial cost and effort required to finish genome assembly projects. Development of methods to identify IS directly from raw sequence reads or draft genomes is therefore desirable. Software tools such as OASIS and IScan currently identify IS elements in completely assembled and annotated genomes; however, to our knowledge no methods have been developed to identify ISs from raw fragment data or partially assembled genomes. We have developed novel methods to solve this computationally challenging problem, and implemented these methods in the software package ISQuest. This software identifies bacterial ISs and their sequence elements—inverted and direct repeats—in raw read data or contigs using flexible search parameters. ISQuest is capable of finding ISs in hundreds of partially assembled genomes within hours, making it a valuable high-throughput tool for a global search of IS elements. We tested ISQuest on simulated read libraries of 3810 complete bacterial genomes and plasmids in GenBank and were capable of detecting 82% of the ISs and transposases annotated in GenBank with 80% sequence identity.

[详细]

  • Bioinformatics
  • 4年前
  • ORIGINAL PAPER

Spatio-temporal Dynamics and Mechanisms of Stress Granule Assembly

时空动力学和应力颗粒组装机制

by Daisuke Ohshima, Kyoko Arimoto-Matsuzaki, Taichiro Tomida, Mutsuhiro Takekawa, Kazuhisa Ichikawa

Stress granules (SGs) are non-membranous cytoplasmic aggregates of mRNAs and related proteins, assembled in response to environmental stresses such as heat shock, hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, chemicals (e.g. arsenite), and viral infections. SGs are hypothesized as a loci of mRNA triage and/or maintenance of proper translation capacity ratio to the pool of mRNAs. In brain ischemia, hippocampal CA3 neurons, which are resilient to ischemia, assemble SGs. In contrast, CA1 neurons, which are vulnerable to ischemia, do not assemble SGs. These results suggest a critical role SG plays in regards to cell fate decisions. Thus SG assembly along with its dynamics should determine the cell fate. However, the process that exactly determines the SG assembly dynamics is largely unknown. In this paper, analyses of experimental data and computer simulations were used to approach this problem. SGs were assembled as a result of applying arsenite to HeLa cells. The number of SGs increased after a short latent period, reached a maximum, then decreased during the application of arsenite. At the same time, the size of SGs grew larger and became localized at the perinuclear region. A minimal mathematical model was constructed, and stochastic simulations were run to test the modeling. Since SGs are discrete entities as there are only several tens of them in a cell, commonly used deterministic simulations could not be employed. The stochastic simulations replicated observed dynamics of SG assembly. In addition, these stochastic simulations predicted a gamma distribution relative to the size of SGs. This same distribution was also found in our experimental data suggesting the existence of multiple fusion steps in the SG assembly. Furthermore, we found that the initial steps in the SG assembly process and microtubules were critical to the dynamics. Thus our experiments and stochastic simulations presented a possible mechanism regulating SG assembly.

[详细]

  • PLOS Computational Biology
  • 4年前

Domain-specific model selection for structural identification of the Rab5-Rab7 dynamics in endocytosis

在细胞内吞作用的rab5-rab7动力学结构识别特定领域的模型选择

Background: Given its recent rapid development and the central role that modeling plays in the discipline, systems biology clearly needs methods for automated modeling of dynamical systems. Process-based modeling focuses on explanatory models of dynamical systems; it constructs such models from measured time-course data and formalized modeling knowledge. In this paper, we apply process-based modeling to the practically relevant task of modeling the Rab5-Rab7 conversion switch in endocytosis. The task is difficult due to the limited observability of the system variables and the noisy measurements, which pose serious challenges to the process of model selection. To address these issues, we propose a domain-specific model selection criteria that take into account knowledge about the necessary properties of the simulated model behavior. Results: In a series of modeling experiments, we compare the results of process-based modeling obtained with different model selection criteria. The first is the standard maximum likelihood criterion based solely on least-squares model error. The second one is a parsimony-based criterion that also takes into account model complexity. We also introduce three domain-specific criteria based on domain expert expectations about the simulated behavior of an endocytosis model. According to the first criterion, 90 of the candidate models are indistinguishable. Furthermore, taking into account the complexity of the model does not lead to better model selection. However, the use of domain-specific criteria results in a remarkable improvement over the other two model selection criteria. Conclusions: We demonstrate the applicability of process-based modeling to the task of modeling the Rab5-Rab7 dynamics in endocytosis. Our experiments show that the domain-specific criteria outperform the standard domain-independent criteria for model selection. We also find that some of the model structures discarded as implausible in previous studies lead to the expected Rab5-Rab7 switch behavior.

[详细]

  • BMC Systems Biology 2015, null:31
  • 4年前

Genome-scale resources for Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

基因组规模的资源<它> Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum <它>

Background: Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum is a hemicellulose-degrading thermophilic anaerobe that was previously engineered to produce ethanol at high yield. A major project was undertaken to develop this organism into an industrial biocatalyst, but the lack of genome information and resources were recognized early on as a key limitation. Results: Here we present a set of genome-scale resources to enable the systems level investigation and development of this potentially important industrial organism. Resources include a complete genome sequence for strain JW/SL-YS485, a genome-scale reconstruction of metabolism, tiled microarray data showing transcription units, mRNA expression data from 71 different growth conditions or timepoints and GC/MS-based metabolite analysis data from 42 different conditions or timepoints. Growth conditions include hemicellulose hydrolysate, the inhibitors HMF, furfural, diamide, and ethanol, as well as high levels of cellulose, xylose, cellobiose or maltodextrin. The genome consists of a 2.7 Mbp chromosome and a 110 Kbp megaplasmid. An active prophage was also detected, and the expression levels of CRISPR genes were observed to increase in association with those of the phage. Hemicellulose hydrolysate elicited a response of carbohydrate transport and catabolism genes, as well as poorly characterized genes suggesting a redox challenge. In some conditions, a time series of combined transcription and metabolite measurements were made to allow careful study of microbial physiology under process conditions. As a demonstration of the potential utility of the metabolic reconstruction, the OptKnock algorithm was used to predict a set of gene knockouts that maximize growth-coupled ethanol production. The predictions validated intuitive strain designs and matched previous experimental results. Conclusion: These data will be a useful asset for efforts to develop T. saccharolyticum for efficient industrial production of biofuels. The resources presented herein may also be useful on a comparative basis for development of other lignocellulose degrading microbes, such as Clostridium thermocellum.

[详细]

  • BMC Systems Biology 2015, null:30
  • 4年前

nextflu: Real-time tracking of seasonal influenza virus evolution in humans

nextflu:实时人类季节性流感病毒进化的跟踪

Summary: Seasonal influenza viruses evolve rapidly, allowing them to evade immunity in their human hosts and reinfect previously infected individuals. Similarly, vaccines against seasonal influenza need to be updated frequently to protect against an evolving virus population. We have thus developed a processing pipeline and browser-based visualization that allows convenient exploration and analysis of the most recent influenza virus sequence data. This web-application displays a phylogenetic tree that can be decorated with additional information such as the viral genotype at specific sites, sampling location, and derived statistics that have been shown to be predictive of future virus dynamics. Additionally, mutation, genotype and clade frequency trajectories are calculated and displayed.

Availability and implementation: Python and Javascript source code is freely available from https://github.com/blab/nextflu, while the web-application is live at http://nextflu.org.

Contact: tbedford@fredhutch.org

[详细]

  • Bioinformatics
  • 4年前
  • APPLICATIONS NOTE

Preparation by alkaline treatment and detailed characterisation of empty hepatitis B virus core particles for vaccine and gene therapy applications

碱性处理和空乙型肝炎病毒核心粒子的详细描述,用于疫苗和基因治疗的应用

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the most powerful protein engineering tools utilised to expose immunological epitopes and/or cell-targeting signals and for the packaging of genetic material and immune stimulatory sequences. Although HBc VLPs and their numerous derivatives are produced in highly efficient bacterial and yeast expression systems, the existing purification and packaging protocols are not sufficiently optimised and standardised. Here, a simple alkaline treatment method was employed for the complete removal of internal RNA from bacteria- and yeast-produced HBc VLPs and for the conversion of these VLPs into empty particles, without any damage to the VLP structure. The empty HBc VLPs were able to effectively package the added DNA and RNA sequences. Furthermore, the alkaline hydrolysis technology appeared efficient for the purification and packaging of four different HBc variants carrying lysine residues on the HBc VLP spikes. Utilising the introduced lysine residues and the intrinsic aspartic and glutamic acid residues exposed on the tips of the HBc spikes for chemical coupling of the chosen peptide and/or nucleic acid sequences ensured a standard and easy protocol for the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications.

[详细]

  • Scientific Reports 5
  • 4年前
  • Article

Single-copy gene based 50 K SNP chip for genetic studies and molecular breeding in rice

在水稻的单拷贝基因50 K SNP芯片的遗传研究及分子育种

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is the most abundant DNA sequence variation present in plant genomes. Here, we report the design and validation of a unique genic-SNP genotyping chip for genetic and evolutionary studies as well as molecular breeding applications in rice. The chip incorporates 50,051 SNPs from 18,980 different genes spanning 12 rice chromosomes, including 3,710 single-copy (SC) genes conserved between wheat and rice, 14,959 SC genes unique to rice, 194 agronomically important cloned rice genes and 117 multi-copy rice genes. Assays with this chip showed high success rate and reproducibility because of the SC gene based array with no sequence redundancy and cross-hybridisation problems. The usefulness of the chip in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of cultivated and wild rice germplasm was demonstrated. Furthermore, its efficacy was validated for analysing background recovery in improved mega rice varieties with submergence tolerance developed through marker-assisted backcross breeding.

[详细]

  • Scientific Reports 5
  • 4年前
  • Article